1 00:00:00,090 --> 00:00:24,179 He was an extraordinary figure in Australian history and in Antarctic history as well. He was one of the great pioneers in Antarctica. And just a hundred years ago, it seems quite a short time, but they were going off the map, and he was leading an Australasian expedition, which was heading into uncharted waters, and they were quite an extraordinary group of men. 2 00:00:24,750 --> 00:01:02,940 The expedition certainly had tragic elements, the loss of life of Xavier Mertz and Lieutenant Ninnis was a tragedy, and the survival of Mawson was truly a heroic episode. But more importantly than that, the Australasian Antarctic expedition set science as its foundation and achieved enormous amounts of scientific results, and even more importantly than that, it set science at the centre of the future of humans in Antarctica. 3 00:01:09,120 --> 00:01:32,740 G'day, guys and welcome to Aussie English! My objective here is to teach you guys the English spoken Down Under. So, whether you want to speak like a fair dinkum Aussie or you just want to understand what the flippin' hell we're on about when we're having a yarn, you've come to the right place. So, sit back, grab a cuppa and enjoy Aussie English. 4 00:01:43,350 --> 00:02:12,600 Guys, I'm such a tool. I'm such a tool this week. 'Tool', okay, that's a good expression for you. If someone's a bit of a tool, they are an idiot, they are, I guess, it's a sort of... It's an... It's impolite, but it's not a swear word, right? And it's a bit weaker than if you called someone say 'a wanker', 'cause if you call someone a wanker, you're suggesting they masturbate. Loosely, that's related to the word, although, it means you're an idiot. But if you're a tool, you're just an idiot, ok? So, anyway, you might hear that out there. 5 00:02:12,990 --> 00:02:50,380 I've been a tool this week, and I don't know my Australian history well enough, because I spent a lot of time writing the Aussie English fact about an explorer, an explorer in Antarctica who ended up not being Australian and not having anything to do with Australia, but because I've heard of him so often, he's always talked about in Australia, in documentaries because he had a contemporary at the time who was Australian, I thought he was Australian, so the guy I'm talking about is an explorer called Shackleton. I wonder if you guys know about him. 6 00:02:50,400 --> 00:03:23,219 He has an absolutely phenomenal, amazing story about survival and surviving under incredibly stressful and pressing conditions in Antarctica. He saved his entire team when they were stranded down there for a long time, but his contemporary who was Australian, or at least who moved to Australia when he was a young lad from I believe Britain, we'll get to the Australian fact on him shortly, is a guy named Mawson, ok? He used to be on the hundred dollar bill in Australia. 7 00:03:23,250 --> 00:03:41,733 So, I ended up having to redo the Aussie fact with Mawson, but I'm going to include the Shackleton British fact, I guess we'll call it this week, in the bonus content for those in the Aussie English classroom because it's a waste of a good story, right? I want to include it, it was a very fascinating story. 8 00:03:42,630 --> 00:04:07,330 So, the snippet there at the start was obviously about Mawson, not Shackleton, and his amazing survival story, although, slightly more tragic survival story in Antarctica. So, check out the rest of that clip on ABC News Australia's YouTube channel and you'll be able to hear the director of the Australian Antarctic Division Tony Fleming finish what he was saying about Sir Douglas Mawson. 9 00:04:07,776 --> 00:04:19,634 You, mob! Bit of an intro there, but welcome to the Aussie English podcast. It's great to have you here! Thank you so much for taking time out of your day to level up your English and listen to me rabbit on, listen to me talk quite a bit, ok? 10 00:04:21,294 --> 00:04:35,308 So, if you would like the transcripts and the MP3 downloads for the podcast, as well as the ability to use the premium podcast player on the site, so that you can consume the material more easily, more effortlessly, make sure that you go to www.AussieEnglish.com.au and you can sign up. 11 00:04:43,364 --> 00:05:20,151 If you want more than just the content for the podcast, you want access to all of my courses, I have 60 or more courses in their, in fact it'll be over 70 now, far out. We've really grown it! If you want all of the bonus content for these expression episodes because I create courses for each of these episodes with dialogue videos, vocab breakdowns, quizzes, vocab lists whole bunch of other stuff in there designed to teach you English and Australian English specifically more quickly, make sure again you go to www.AussieEnglish.com.au and sign up. 12 00:05:20,190 --> 00:05:42,722 The trial at the moment is one dollar but things are about to change, we're about to mix things up. The site is currently being redone, where we're really going to jazz it up this year, I'm investing a lot of time, effort, and money into really, really improving things so that you guys can learn English as well as Australian culture and history and everything like that a lot more deeply and easily, ok?. 13 00:05:43,520 --> 00:06:06,540 Anyway, that's coming soon, but for now let's just get into this episode. Alright, so the expression today is 'a kick in the guts' and we'll get into that shortly, but I wanted to have a joke related to something in the expression, right? So, I was thinking ok, kick, hum? What about guts? Ok, guts. So, guts is a word for stomach or your intestines, your innards. 14 00:06:07,230 --> 00:06:36,335 So, the joke is: why don't skeletons fight each other? Right? Why don't skeletons, you know, the form of a human being, but just the bones, the skeleton of the human, why don't skeletons fight each other? Because they don't have the guts. Save your applause! Save your applause with this awesome joke! Why don't skeletons fight each other? They don't have the guts! 15 00:06:36,410 --> 00:07:03,320 In this case to have the guts to do something, in this case fight someone, is to be brave enough, to be courageous enough to do it, ok? To be ballsy enough to do it. If you have the guts to do something, you are brave enough to do that thing. So, today's expression ' a kick in the guts', this was suggested by Lima in the Aussie English Classroom, the Facebook group, we all voted on these expressions, Lima crushed it, she did very well, everyone loved this expression, so I had to do it today. 16 00:07:04,280 --> 00:07:09,833 So, let's go through and define the words in the expression 'a kick in the guts',' a kick in the guts'. 17 00:07:10,580 --> 00:07:56,060 I'm sure you'll know what a kick is, right? If you kick someone, you know, kick the table. If you kick something, you strike it or propel it forcibly with your foot, right? So, you're using your foot to hit that thing, you're hitting the thing, not with your hand, with your foot. If it was with your hand, it would be to punch. To punch, to kick. If you kick in something, right? A kick in something, it's the idea that you're kicking something and it expresses the fact that movement is the result here and it's a movement that's going inwards, right? So, it's something you're kicking something with your foot. That is then enclosing your foot, surrounding your foot, right? It's going to inwards. 'A kick in something'. 18 00:07:56,660 --> 00:08:33,633 And the last word here, 'guts', as I said, is your stomach or your belly. So, it could be that you are, what would you... Rub your guts, right? If you rub your belly, you're rubbing your guts, but it can also be the internal parts of that area of your body, right? So, your digestive system, your intestines, your stomach, maybe if you're driving along in Australia and you accidentally run over a kangaroo, you might crush the kangaroo and its guts go everywhere maybe, you know, over the road, hopefully not over your windshield and the bonnet of your car. The guts hopefully they go over the road. 19 00:08:35,059 --> 00:08:58,729 So, expression definition wise. What do you think it means? If I say that something's a kick in the guts, right? I hear some news and it was a real kick in the guts, what do you think this means? It means that that thing is a severe blow to your body or spirit, right? It's something that makes you feel very disappointed or upset, especially when you've been trying hard to achieve something, right? 20 00:08:58,810 --> 00:09:23,059 So, if I've been working hard to do something and I fail, that result of failure is a real kick in the guts, right? And you may also hear this expression as 'a kick in the teeth', which would be equally unpleasant. In fact, probably more so, I would hate to lose my teeth and 'a kick in the stomach', 'a kick in the guts', 'a kick in the stomach', 'a kick in the teeth'. These are all very common expressions used everywhere,I think, in English. 21 00:09:24,190 --> 00:09:31,580 Alright, so let's go through some examples of how I would use the expression 'a kick in the guts' in day to day English. 22 00:09:32,180 --> 00:10:27,649 So, example number one, ok? You're receiving bad news. So, I'll tell you a personal story about me and my family. When I was in my final year of my undergraduate degree at Melbourne University, I was studying Biology and Zoology, the study of life and Zoology the study of animals, I was really interested in animals and my family, my parents had actually met and attended this university when they were young, that's where they met studying Zoology as well, so you know small world, right? ,Anyway while I was studying my mum found a lump in her breast and she ended up having it looked at and the lump itself wasn't a problem, it was benign, it wasn't a cancer, but fortunately or unfortunately they found breast cancer right next to it, a very small breast cancer next to that lump. So, when she delivered the news to me, when she told me I remember it being a real kick in the guts, I was upset, I was distressed, I was worried sick about her. 23 00:10:28,190 --> 00:10:57,207 Fortunately, it was in the early stages, but she still had to have some pretty invasive procedures, including the removal of the lump, so she had to have an operation, she had to have surgery, she had to have a lymphnode removed from under her arm to check to see if the cancer had metastasized, that is that it's spreading through the body, and she also had to have radiotherapy on that area of her breast to kill any other cancer cells that may have been left after the operation. 24 00:10:58,190 --> 00:11:22,190 As things would have it and as you can probably tell from the tone of my voice, the years rolled by and she got better, she had regular check-ups and there was never a sign of cancer again, so now she's been cancer free for the past 12 years. So, she's fit as a fiddle. However, when I first found out the news that she had breast cancer, it was a real kick in the guts, it was a kick in the teeth, it was a kick in the stomach, it was horrible. 25 00:11:22,910 --> 00:12:07,220 Example number two, so imagine you've been with your girlfriend or boyfriend for years, right? You've been together for yonks, you've had a relationship for donkey's years, for a long time, ever since you first met. You've got along like a house on fire, really, really well and it wasn't long after this that you shacked up, you started going out, you eventually ended up in a long term relationship with this partner, you moved in together and it's been a few years since then, but things are starting to fall apart, so you don't really get along like you used to, you always seem to grate on each other, you seem to rub each other the wrong way and eventually you hear through the grapevine, you hear through gossip through other people that your partner has been cheating on you with the postman. 26 00:12:07,460 --> 00:12:26,668 So, where each day you go to work, the postman arrives after that to deliver the mail, but he is doing more than that. He's coming into your house and he's getting jiggy with you missus, right? He's doing the nasty with your missus. So, when you discovered this deception, this betrayal, you feel gutted, you feel upset, you feel like what she's done is a kick in the guts. You feel horrible. 27 00:12:31,178 --> 00:13:01,215 Example number three, and this is probably true for many of you guys. Imagine your studying your arse off trying to complete the IELTS exam to come to Australia. You need to get a band score of maybe seven point five or eight in the exam, which I know is pretty high up and you need this, so that you can enter university and start your business degree or commerce degree in Australia. So, you work your ass off, you work hard, you'll put in all the hard yakka, you study every single day, you put in loads of time and effort levelling up your English to have the best possible shot at getting the score you want. 28 00:13:08,589 --> 00:13:25,060 The day finally comes around and you rock up to the exam venue, you arrive there, you sit down and you complete the exam quickly, you feel like you've smashed it out, it was a synch , it was easy and you're going to pass it with flying colours, you have no doubt in your mind you'll get the score you want. 29 00:13:25,116 --> 00:14:04,849 Whilst you wait for the results, though, to be announced, you're incredibly excited, but you're also nervous, right? You might be moving around, you've got ants in your pants, you can't sit still and you finally find out your score and it's a seven. It's lower than the seven point five that you needed if that was the minimum, right? So, you feel awful, you're upset, you're disappointed, you're low, you could say that when you received this bad news about your results not being sufficient it was a real kick in the guts, it was a kick in the teeth, you were absolutely gutted, you were devastated when you found out that you just missed out on the score you'd needed and I hope that doesn't happen to you, guys. 30 00:14:05,390 --> 00:14:34,100 So, the expression 'a kick in the guts' it is a severe blow to your body or spirit, so it can be a literal kick in the guts, someone could kick you in the guts, but we use this figuratively to mean something that makes you feel disappointed, upset and especially when it's something you've been trying hard to achieve, like in the IELTS example there, and remember you'll also hear this as 'a kick in the teeth' and 'a kick in the stomach', but in Australia 'a kick in the guts' is very popular. 31 00:14:35,300 --> 00:14:52,950 So, as usual, let's go through a little listen and repeat exercise guys where you can pay attention to my pronunciation, you can work on your Aussie accent if that is your goal or you can obviously just work on your connected speech and whatever other English accent that you're trying to improve, ok? So, listen and repeat after me. 32 00:14:54,130 --> 00:14:55,130 A 33 00:14:59,059 --> 00:15:00,059 A kick 34 00:15:00,578 --> 00:15:01,578 A kick in 35 00:15:02,970 --> 00:15:04,190 A kick in the 36 00:15:07,290 --> 00:15:09,150 A kick in the guts x 5 37 00:15:32,490 --> 00:15:52,230 So, now I'm going to go through and conjugate the phrase 'I felt it like a kick in the guts', 'you felt it like a kick in the guts', but I'm going to say this more naturally, ok? I'm not going to really split the words up, I will say it fluidly as I would using connected speech, ok? So, listen and repeat after me and pay attention to my pronunciation. 38 00:15:53,550 --> 00:15:56,059 I felt it like a kick in the guts. 39 00:16:03,600 --> 00:16:06,389 You felt it like a kick in the guts. 40 00:16:13,880 --> 00:16:16,850 He felt it like a kick in the guts. 41 00:16:24,370 --> 00:16:27,489 She felt it like a kick in the guts. 42 00:16:34,810 --> 00:16:37,679 We felt it like a kick in the guts. 43 00:16:45,030 --> 00:16:47,980 They felt it like a kick in the guts. 44 00:16:55,370 --> 00:16:58,220 It felt like a kick in the guts. 45 00:17:05,290 --> 00:17:49,840 Good job! So, there's a few interesting things going on there connected speech wise where, for instance. you might hear that T at the end of the word felt, if I pronounce it very well, felt, what happens to the T when I say it in these sentences? I felt it, I felt it, you felt it. It turns into the T flap, ok? I felt it like a kick in the guts and the L there instead of saying felt, I'm saying it as a dark L, so it sounds more like a reverse WU sound, right? Have a listen: felt, felt, instead of felt, felt, so it's all lips and not tongue. Felt, felt. 46 00:17:49,876 --> 00:18:07,469 Anyway, if you want to learn more about connected speech and pronunciation, make sure you go to the Aussie English website, sign up for the courses there guys, join the Aussie English Classroom and you'll be able to level up your English rapidly if you follow my courses and lessons on pronunciation. 47 00:18:08,070 --> 00:18:42,630 So, as usual let's go through the Aussie fact and then we'll finish up. S,o today the expression was 'a kick in the guts' and I was thinking ok, Gutsy. Gutsy means something that is very brave, right? Or courageous, if you're a gutsy person, you're a brave and courageous person, so I was thinking ok, Aussie explorers, Antarctic explorers. Initially I thought Shackleton, I did the entire thing on Shackleton and then I realised he's not Australian. So, redid it again on Mawson. So, Sir Douglas Mawson is the guy that we're going to be talking about today. 48 00:18:42,660 --> 00:19:07,740 Sir Douglas Mawson was born on the 5th of May in 1882 in Shipley West Yorkshire, but before he even turned two years old his family immigrated to Australia and settled in Rooty Hill, now in the western suburbs of Sydney. He attended Fort Street Model School and the University of Sydney where he graduated in 1902 with a Bachelor of Engineering degree. 49 00:19:08,460 --> 00:19:27,132 In 1903 he was appointed a geologist on an expedition to the New Hebrides, now known as Vanuatu and conducted the earliest geological work in Melanesia. Soon after, he became a lecturer in petrology and minearology at the University of Adelaide, in 1905. 50 00:19:27,204 --> 00:20:06,630 Mawson joined the famous British explorer Ernest Shackleton on his Nimrod Expedition in 1907 to 1909 to the Antarctic, where he originally intended to only stay for the duration of the ship's presence in the first summer. Instead, both he and his mentor Edgeworth David stayed an extra year in the frozen south. As a result, and alongside Allistair Mackay, they became the first men to climb the summit of Mount Erebus, Antarctica's most active volcano and to treck to the South Magnetic Pole, which at the time was overland. 51 00:20:07,260 --> 00:21:09,710 The team managed to get within 180 kilometres of the South Pole, reaching a latitude of 88 degrees south, which at the time was the closest any human being had ever gotten to the South Pole. During this trip, Mawson sharpened his Antarctic exploring skills and carried out extensive geological, zoological, and meteorology work. In 1910 Mawson was invited to join Robert Falcon Scott's Terra Nova expedition to Antarctica, which had the intention of finally being the first team to reach the South Pole. However, Mawson had other ideas in mind. He was hoping to launch his own expedition in the near future. However, Australian geologist Griffith Taylor jumped on the opportunity and joined the Terra Nova Expedition in Mawson's place, a choice that would prove fortunate for Mawson and fatal for Taylor when Scott and his entire Terra Nova team died on their return journey after successfully reaching the South Pole. 52 00:21:10,620 --> 00:21:47,482 Mawson ended up leading his own expedition the Australasian Antarctic expedition to King George V Land and Adelie Land, the sector of the Antarctic continent immediately south of Australia, which until then had remained almost entirely unexplored. The objectives were to carry out geographical exploration and scientific studies, including a visit to the South Magnetic Pole. Mawson raised the necessary funds within only 12 months from both the British and the Australian governments, as well as from commercial backers interested in mining and whaling. 53 00:21:48,450 --> 00:22:00,504 The expedition using the ship S.Y. Aurora, commanded by Captain John King Davis, departed from Hobart on the 2nd of December 1911 and landed at Cape Denison, at Commonwealth Bay, on the 8th of January in 1912, where the main base was established. 54 00:22:06,473 --> 00:23:01,112 A second camp was located to the west, on the ice shelf in Queen Mary Land. Cape Denison proved to be an inhospitable and unrelentingly windy place, where the average annual wind speed was up to 80 kilometres an hour with some winds reaching up to three hundred and twenty kilometres per hour. Mawson and his team built a hut, which in the future would come to be known as Mawson's hut on the Rocky Cape and managed to winter through nearly constant blizzards in the first year. Mawson's exploration program was carried out by five parties from the main base and two from the western base. Mawson himself was part of a three man sledging team, the far eastern party with Xavier Mertz and Lieutenant Belgrave Ninnies, who travelled east on the 10th of November 1912 with the aim of surveying King George the fifth land. 55 00:23:02,430 --> 00:23:55,260 After five weeks of exceptional progress mapping the coastline and collecting geological samples, the party found itself crossing the Ninnis glacier, 480 kilometres east of the main base. Mertz was skiing along in front and Mawson was on his sled with his weight dispersed, but Ninnis was jogging beside the second sled and due to his body weight on the ice, Ninnis suddenly fell through a crevasse when he breached the snow bridge that was covering it, along with Ninnis the massive crevasse swallowed up the six best dogs on the team, most of the party's rations, their tent and other essential supplies. Mertz and Mawson were spared and from the mouth of the icy ravine, they spotted one dead and one injured dog on a ledge, 165 feet below them. However, Ninnis was never seen again. 56 00:23:55,980 --> 00:24:33,000 After a brief service, Mawson and Mertz turned back immediately. They had one week's provisions for the two of them, plenty of fuel and primus, a small portable stove, but no dog food for the remaining dogs. They sledged for 27 hours continuously to obtain a spare tent cover that they had left behind, for which they improvised a frame from skis and some surveying equipment. Their provisions dwindling, they were faced with the unpleasant but unavoidable option of using their remaining sled dogs to feed the other dogs as well as themselves. Mawson later wrote:. 57 00:24:33,720 --> 00:25:08,169 "Their meat was stringy, tough and without a vestige of fat. For a change, we sometimes chopped it up finely, mixed it with a little pemmican, and brought all to a boil in a large pot of water. We were exceedingly hungry, but there was nothing to satisfy our appetites. Only a few ounces were used of the stock of ordinary food, to which we added a portion of dog's meat never large for each animal yielded so very little and the major part was fed to the surviving dogs. They crunched the bones and ate the skin until nothing remained." 58 00:25:08,970 --> 00:26:02,219 The men's physical condition rapidly deteriorated during this journey. Both men experienced symptoms of dizziness, nausea, abdominal pain, irrationality, mucosal fissuring, skin hair and nail loss and even yellowing of the eyes and skin. Later, Mawson noticed a dramatic change in his travelling companion. Mertz seemed to lose all will to move and only wanted to stay in his sleeping bag, as his deterioration sped up and he suffered from diarrhoea and madness. It got to such a point that on one occasion Mertz refused to believe he was suffering from frostbite and bit off the tip of his own little finger. Soon after, Mertz began to enter fits of violent rage and Mawson was forced to sit on his companions chest and hold his arms down to prevent him from damaging their tent. 59 00:26:02,820 --> 00:26:44,469 Mertz suffered further seizures before falling into a coma and tragically dying on the 8th of January in 1913. At the time, Mawson had no idea what was the cause of their sickness. What ultimately proved to be the culprit was the husky liver they'd been eating, which contains extremely high levels of vitamin A, unknown to them at the time, such levels of vitamin A can cause liver damage to humans and together the men had consumed six dogs between them, with a liver on average weighing a kilogram. Thus, it's believed the pair ingested enough liver to bring on a condition known as Hypervitaminosis A. 60 00:26:45,150 --> 00:27:09,601 Mertz likely suffered more because he found the tough muscle tissue hard to eat and, therefore, ate more of the liver than Mawson. The sole survivor Mawson continued the final 160 kilometres, during this return trip to the main base he was confronted with the same fate of Ninnis when he fell through the lid of an icy crevasse and was only saved by the skin of his teeth when his sledge wedged itself into the ice above him. He managed to climb out using the harness that connected him to the sled. 61 00:27:17,894 --> 00:27:44,990 When Mawson finally made it back to Cape Denison, it turned out he only just missed the ship Aurora, which had departed a mere few hours earlier. It was recalled by wireless communication, however, due to bad weather the rescue effort was thwarted and the boat was prevented from turning back. Mawson and six men who had remained behind to look for him, wintered a second year in Antarctica until December 1913. 62 00:27:45,005 --> 00:28:32,419 Unlike fellow explorers of the era Scott and Shackleton, Mawson's life wasn't destined to be extinguished on the vast frozen southern continent. Once home and recuperating, he got to work writing his account of the expedition in his book 'Home of the Blizzard', profusely illustrated by the magnificent photographs of Frank Hurley. The book is a classic of polar literature and described the first major scientific exploring venture by Australians beyond their shores. His party and those at the Western base had explored large areas of the Antarctic coast describing its geology, biology and meteorology and more closely defining the location of the South Magnetic Pole. 63 00:28:33,170 --> 00:29:06,229 On his return to Australia in 1914, Mawson received public acclaim for his achievements and even received a knighthood. In 1915, he received numerous awards for his accolades and later went on to serve in World War I. He became a professor of geology at Mineralogy at Adelaide University, as well as pursued his interests in conservation farming and forestry until the day he died on the 14th of October, in 1958, at the ripe old age of 76. 64 00:29:06,590 --> 00:29:18,259 By leading Australia's first Antarctic Research Expedition, Mawson became an internationally acclaimed scientist and explorer, firmly etched into the legend of Australia. 65 00:29:18,920 --> 00:29:36,585 So, that was a long one, guys, but I really wanted to tell you the entire story as best I could about Mawson because it was an amazing story of survival in the hostile Antarctic conditions. I hope you enjoy it, I hope you learnt a bunch of expressions, slang and other bits and pieces of English and I will see you next week. Peace out! 66 00:29:41,160 --> 00:30:20,699 G'day, mate! Thanks for listening to this episode of the Aussie English podcast. If you wish to support the podcast and help me keep bringing new content you can do so via my patron page remember. It's my mission here at Aussie English not only to help you understand Australian English but to speak it like a native. If that's your goal make sure you enrol in the Aussie English classroom guys where you'll get all the bonus content for today's episode designed to improve your English even faster. Have a ripper of a day and I'll see you in class.